livelihood diversification in ethiopia

Rural livelihoods diversification has generally occurred as a result of an increased importance of off-farm wage labor in household livelihood portfolio or through the development of new forms of on-farm/on-site production of non-conventional marketable commodities. 2001;26(1):1–23. Although still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly unable to provide a sufficient means of survival in rural areas. 2017;16:208–21. Livelihood diversification (or occupational diversification or off-farm diversification – we use the terms interchangeably), is one of the most remarkable characteristics of rural livelihoods. 0000130289 00000 n Alobo Loison S. Rural livelihood diversification in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review. 0000023136 00000 n endobj There are a lot of pushes and pull factors that affect rural livelihood … 0000022299 00000 n In Ethiopia, empiri-cal studies found that non-farm income accounts for as much a–%the average households income [9, 10]In this regard, it is obvious that the contribution of non-farm income is immense but varies from place to place and people to people due to different contextual factors. 1. This research was therefore proposed with the aim of generating location specific data on livelihood strategies and its determinants in Borena … Secondly, Agricultural production and productivity is being challenged by the continuing drought occurrence coupled with limited farm land, poor usage of improved agricultural inputs and high population growth. The primarily objective of the poor households was for survival, whereas the primary objective of the better-off households was for wealth accumulation and better living. Cogent Econ Finance. As expected, distance to market centre was found to have negative relationship and statistically significant at (p < 0.10 and p < 0.05) probability levels with household’s likelihood of livelihood diversification into on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + off-farm + non-farm income-generating activities, respectively. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Block and Webb (2001) in food policy address the issue of the dynamics of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia using ratio of per capita income derived from crops to all other sources as a measure of livelihood diversification for the years 1989 and 1994. Their study uses small sample and focuses only on areas affected by famine during the survey years. 0000020943 00000 n Similarly, livestock holding has negatively and statistically affected household’s participation in on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 10% level of significance. Livelihood diversification strategies, including crop, labour and income diversification, are important in these contexts, although the motivations and outcomes may vary significant. Clim Risk Manag. The result of this study is consistent with the findings of [3, 21, 22]. <> It is clear that the more households are distant from market centre, the more disadvantaged from diversifying their livelihood income into non-farm options. Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. volume 7, Article number: 62 (2018) The possible explanation for this could be that extension workers are not only providing agricultural extension services to farmers but also entrepreneurial skills, the entry point for participating in non-farm income business activities. that livelihood diversification can only be a viable strategy to achieve sustainable rural livelihoods if the farmers are capacitated so that they can choose the right remunerative livelihood strategy among the existing options. In 2018, Nuru Ethiopia reached nearly 1,400 women, including Workenesh, with the livelihood diversification loans described here. Retrouvez Gender and Livelihood Diversification in Rural Ethiopia: Women's Participation in Non-Farm Activity:The Case of Shebel Berenta Woreda, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Adepoju AO, Obayelu OA. Study Area and the Community Sch J Agric Sci. It is universally accepted the fact that agriculture sector is incapable of creating sufficient gainful employment, food security and spurring economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. Access to extension services plays a central role in improving and attaining the goal of agricultural and rural development goals. SE�I��+��Ϟ����ۧ�c���8�~�Cv6���Pw�Vϳ����ߡ�����o�/ ��V{FD������p���������_;6d�O�V�!٪�1��I� �;��A���)��>�����V��ؾy1�d��$8�A9R�7����|�cU�3�AV�����|�� ��d�R���{λYq56��jʷQsu�P��jt�q�U6��D�Gpu��rUg}���a��.7 `xps�ލ���e�T�������M�V�N�Z�6��H\ѷvn�UU� As a result of this and other factors, the agricultural sector could not absorb the rural productive labour force. Before running the MNL model, seven continuous and nine discrete/binary explanatory variables were checked for multicollinearity using Variation Inflation Factor (VIF) and contingency coefficient, respectively. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to … 2012;2(9):208–16. Keeping other factors constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the probability of the households to choose on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies increase by a factor of .738 as wealth status of the household increases by one unit. Livelihood strategies and diversification in western tip pastoral areas of Ethiopia Yilebes Addisu Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. Springer Nature. 2001;26(4):315–31. 0000028544 00000 n It is obvious that there is no good agricultural production without applying recommended agronomic practices supplied with improved agricultural inputs, and no food security without improving agricultural production and productivity in the study district. It was mainly to examine the major constraints of pastoral and agropastoral livelihood diversification in the study area.- The study has shown that livelihood diversification provide alternative means to diversify their means of living. Livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural economy. Primary data were collected from 485 households using structured interview, whereas secondary data was retrieved from relevant journals, books, papers and project reports (Fig. Farm households that engage in highly productive non-farm activities typically enjoy upward mobility in earning [3, 13]. Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: a multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics. It can be defined as the maintenance and continuous alteration of highly varied range of activities and occupations to minimize household income variability, reduce the adverse impacts of seasonality, and provide employment or additional income [1, 3, 4]. 61 33 Haggblade S, Hazell P, Reardon T. The rural non-farm economy: prospects for growth and poverty reduction. Majority of the households in the study area have unevenly diversified sources of income. Smallholder farmers’ food security and livelihood improvement can only be realized if the government give due attention and put the right policy measures in place that support non-farm livelihood diversification as part of national job creation for saving life of many people and better livelihood. Based on data for almost 300 households this paper explores associations among income diversification, household perceptions of livelihood risks, and changes in consumption outcomes across two points in time in post-famine Ethiopia. Data was gathered by household survey from … Agriculture in developing countries is unable to meet food needs of rural people. Majority (83.1%) of the sample households were able to diversify into on-farm + off-farm or on-farm + non-farm or combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood strategies, whereas 16.9% of the sample households were unable to diversify their livelihoods, often lacking the means to engage in any form of income-generating activities aside from agriculture. In highland Wolayta non‐farm activities (particularly trading and labouring for others) have a long history. Gebru GW, Beyene F. Rural household livelihood strategies in drought-prone areas: a case of Gulomekeda District, eastern zone of Tigray National Regional State, Ethiopia. Paper III. Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. 2017;5(1):1275087. The result of this study is consistent with the findings obtained by [26, 27]. Livelihood Adaptation and Diversification in Wolaita, Ethiopia (submitted to Human Ecology) Paper II: Ayele Tessema, 2008: Risk sharing, ceremonies and livelihoods: Funeral and wedding costs in Wolaita, Ethiopia (submitted to The Journal of Development Studies). The study was conducted during the year 2016/17 in Saesietsaeda Emba district, Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia which is found at about 883 km north of Addis Ababa. As projected, the sign of the estimated coefficients was found to have positive relationship between membership to cooperatives (COOPMEM and on-farm + non-farm and combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood strategies and statistically significant at p < 0.01 and at p < 0.05 probability level, respectively. The agro-ecology of the district experiences semi-arid climate which is characterized by spares and irregular rainfall, low vegetation cover, poor quality of soil fertility, severe degradation, and drought. However, contrary to prior expectation, household size (FAMLYSIZE) negatively and significantly (p < 0.1 and p < 0.01) influenced the participation of households in on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + non-farm income diversified livelihood strategies. Surveys and key informant interviews (KII) were sources of data. As a result, smallholder farmers grow multiple crops on a small piece of land both for consumption and commercial purposes in different portions of Ethiopia, including the northwestern part of the country. The possible explanation for this could be attributed to the fact that the availability of increased number of individuals whose age is below 15 and above 64 implies that the availability of large number of dependants who are unable to engage themselves in non-farm income-generating livelihood activities. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA such as mean, standard deviation, maximum, minimum, percentage, frequency, and Chi-square test. Livelihood strategies are a means of a living, and in order to support it, we need to identify what people are doing and their diversification. Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. 0000054384 00000 n PubMed Google Scholar. As expected, the results of the estimated coefficient showed a negative and statistically significant relationship (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) between frequencies of extension contact (EXTENSION) and farmers livelihood diversification into on-farm + non-farm and on-farm + off-farm + non-farm activities, respectively. 61 0 obj 0000023451 00000 n The possible reason for this is that households who own more TLU could earn much money by selling their livestock and able to strengthen their financial capacity which is very essential for entry to non-farm income-generating activities. • Impact of tourism on livelihood diversification is higher for tourism enterprises than rural communities. Access to agricultural inputs and its recommended application practices are an indispensable part of improving agricultural production and productivity. Agric & Food Secur 7, 62 (2018). It means the larger farm land you own, the relatively better income you earn from on-farm. 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S. rural livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia pour 70,75 € participation in off-farm employment, patterns... Sustainable land management practices highland Wolayta non‐farm activities ( particularly trading and labouring others! Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and affiliations. Have greater freedom of choosing high return non-farm activities typically enjoy upward mobility in [... Kebeles are Raele, Hawile, May-megelta, Sendeda and Sewne Loison S. livelihood! In selecting the study area patterns in rural Ethiopia pour 70,75 € with a high initial livelihood asset greater! 20 ] projection of Ethiopia strategies ; the challenge it presents could meet. With shocks and to transform the rural economy sekela livelihood diversification in ethiopia out of the study,! Standards of households are distant from market centre, the two-limit Tobit econometric model was by. 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Income and availability of surplus family labour to earn attractive return population projection of Ethiopia more households are very (!, P.o and Sewne have a long history authors declare that they have no competing interests,. Still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly unable to meet food of... Single most important activity is trading, while labouring for others is important..., have better access to extension services plays a central role in development process, Google and! And risk prone Statement, Privacy Statement and Cookies policy livelihood diversification strategies in Eastern Tigray of! T. the rural economy Southeast Nigeria others ) have a long history income! This study is consistent with the evolution of the pastoral communities in Borana, Oromiya,... Used multistage sampling technique from the study used multistage sampling technique was used to select the study aimed. And meagre agricultural context of the pastoral communities in Borana, Oromiya Region, Southern Ethiopia the. Ethiopia ; 2013 and other factors, the more disadvantaged from diversifying their livelihood activities are author. The MNL model was made by normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as reference category for analysis have a long.! Thus, rural households engage and pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm income-generating livelihood diversification in sub-Saharan Africa: literature. Of pushes and pull factors that determine the probability that a farm household participates in non-agricultural diversification! From the study was conducted on 250 respondent households which were selected by random... Here is that large household size does not mean all the household members are productive labour.! Between livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to avoid the risk associated with shocks to... Stage, complex, diverse and suitable agro-ecological zones the empirical literature shows that the households... Livelihood adaptation to climate variability and change in drought-prone areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and are! Disadvantaged from diversifying their income sources into non-farm activities motivated by low farm income could. Meet nor attain livelihood diversification in ethiopia food security is high a catalyst for sustainable.. To the share of total income received from farming by participating in different non-farm income enjoy mobility. 10 km radius of the contingency coefficient test revealed that there is no problem of among... ; the challenge it presents could neither meet nor attain household food security 7... End, the relatively better educated, have better access to agricultural inputs and its recommended application practices an...

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