Tobruk is a sea port on the Mediterranean coast. For the 1st South African Division, the war had ended. The capture of Tobruk was essential for an advance on Alexandria and Suez.  Pienaar had deployed each of the lead brigades, with on battalion leading for the first phase to the "red line" – after a pause of an hour and a quarter, the two trailing battalions would pass through to the final objective on Miteiriya Ridge. A third of the Tobruk garrison was the 2nd South African Infantry Division under the command of Major General Hendrik Klopper. , The same day, Rommel committed himself to a "dash for the wire" – with the intention of exploiting the disorganisation and confusion in the enemy's bases and cutting their supply lines.  Cunningham thus replaced 2nd and 5th Brigades with the 21st East African Brigade and withdrew them back into Kenya. The Duke of Edinburgh's Own Rifles followed in the Rajula. The Western Desert Force was reorganised and renamed the Eighth Army under the command of Lieutenant-General Alan Cunningham and at this stage, the division comprised only two brigades. I know what war means – seven years of my life have been spent in wars. Fall of Tobruk 1942 and South African Major-General Klopper’s role. After the success of the 1st South African Infantry Brigade against the Italians at the El Wak border post on 16 December 1940, Lieutenant-General Alan Cunningham was intent on opening access into the Galla-Sidamo area across the Chalbi Desert by advancing eastwards from the eastern side of Lake Rudolf and to support a possible rebellion by the Shifta tribe against the Italians. Refer section titled "Awards for Gallantry". Released on June 21, 1965, the Byrds’ debut album, Mr. Tambourine Man, marked the beginning of the folk-rock revolution. Poole as GSO 1. [nb 12]. Of the 33 000 Allied soldiers captured on 21 June 1942, 10 722 were South Africans who were all part of the 2nd South African Infantry Division under command of Major General H.B.  They soon started causing the havoc for which they had been intended – A Sqn capturing two 88mm guns, two 105 mm guns, two 110mm guns, a Breda portee, six trucks and 130 prisoners; while B Sqn captured five trucks, a staff car, one 105 mm and one 150 mm gun and 100 prisoners within a matter of hours.  The designation 1st South African Infantry Division was also used briefly by a successor formation in 1948–49. The Italians had fled, leaving large quantities of logistical stores. This account only reflects the role of the 1st SA Infantry Division. By 1 December, advance parties were already returning to South Africa to assist with the establishment of the intended armoured division and later in the month, General Dan Pienaar was recalled to South Africa to lead the formation of the new division. , At 0540 on 4 November, after repeated attempts at breaking through the Axis lines – Lt-Col Reeves-Moore lead the South African armoured cars into the rear of the Axis positions, "....the eager children of any mechanized pursuit... scampered at dawn into the open desert beyond the mines and trenches and guns, to make their exuberant mischief amid the disintegrating enemy". 2nd Permanent Force Artillery Battery S.A.M.R. However, when compared to casualties sustained by, It was at this time, conducting probing fighting patrols into the Italian positions that Sgt Q. Smythe lead his platoon under enemy fire, earning him the Victoria Cross. [nb 7] At the end of October, Brink advised XXX Corps that 1st Division would not be ready to participate in the preparatory exercise as a prelude to Crusader – and that he required an additional 21 days for training. Men who attested under these terms were entitled to wear the distinct insignia of the Mobile Field Force, a red / orange shoulder strap which was to become known as the "Red Tab". The division was now spread out between the original Gazala defences and Tobruk, as each element tried to make their way east. As a teen, he won a commission in the Spanish army and might have been expected to live out an ...read more.  However, fighting continued at El Duda north west of Sidi Regez, with the South Africans being involved in fierce battles in Die Kessel[nb 10] of Sidi Regez on 29 and 30 November. The report that these forces were available was not welcomed at Corps and Army headquarters, and these mobile formations were not used. Thus, part of the 1st SA Anti-Aircraft brigade, who arrived in Mombasa on 1 June 1940 as an advance party to protect Mombasa harbour from feared Italian air attacks, becoming the first South African land forces to be deployed outside of South Africa since the First World War. During the time the division had spent in East Africa, the Desert War had progressed and by the time of their arrival in Egypt: 2nd and 5th Brigades crossed the Abyssinian border north of Dukana late afternoon on 31 January 1941, moving in parallel columns to assault the Italian positions in the Mega-Moyale complex. On February 16, 1808, under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal, ...read more, The controversial U.S. military expedition against Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa brings the United States and Mexico closer to war when Mexican government troops attack U.S. Brigadier General John J. Pershing’s force at Carrizal, Mexico.  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