Poor urban people often also depend upon multiple diverse livelihood activities involving different employment (labouring) and self employment activities. Table 4: Characteristics of livelihood groups. As outlined in the previous table, the average cash income is lowest among day laborers (4,750 PhP/month), fishers (4,800 PhP/month), and farmers (5,150 PhP/month). They have on average the lowest monthly income (4,750 PhP/month). However, some reported engaging in agriculture (29%), day labor (16%), and trading activities (15%). The proportion was highest in Lanao del Norte (20%) and Sultan Kudarat (16%), compared to 6 percent in Maguindanao.The proportion of households receiving remittances was highest among households with an ‘alternative livelihood’ strategy (49%), compared to 12 percent or less among the other livelihood profiles. Grouping livelihood strategies enables easy analysis and comparisons as there are a multitude of economic activities that households may engage in, but … Livelihood strategies aim at developing self-reliance. Other differences included the higher frequency of fishers in Maguindanao (20% compared to 7% or less elsewhere), and a higher proportion of day laborers in Sultan Kudarat (23% compared to 12% or less elsewhere.). The survey explored activities that households undertook while being displaced. Their mean income, at 5,800 PhP/month is below average (6,500 PhP/month). They represent 7% of the population and are present throughout the study area. It is a crucial productive resource particularly for the rural community that is why the stake- holders in the area put land as one among the main 162 J. Dev. Livelihood strategies: How people access and use these assets, within the aforementioned social, economic, political and environmental contexts, form a livelihood strategy. A livelihood strategy is an organized set of life-style choices, goals and values, and activities influenced by biophysical, political/legal, econo- mic, social, cultural, and psychological compo-nents. An important influence on livelihood strategies is exposure to various trends and shocks. Households in the richest wealth quintile were more likely to receive remittances from abroad (75%) compared to the other households. They may allow people to make claims on other people's obligations to support them, and can help in the development of informal safety nets amongst the poor. Such interactions are important in the increasing attention given by policy-makers to interactions between 'social protection' (social transfers and safety nets) and development. Skilled workers account for 11% of the population and are most frequent in the urban area such as Cotabato City, where they account for 24% of the households. Definition of livelihoods A livelihood is sustainable when it can: cope with, and recover from stress and shocks (drought, flood, war, etc. They are the main livelihood group (39%).In North Cotabato and Lanao del Sur, they account for 49% of the population. There is a need to expound on the literature about these dimensions and assess how they impact on livelihood strategies and outcomes. ABSTRACT. The sustainable livelihoods framework in 3.1.1 is an effort to conceptualise livelihoods in a holistic way, capturing the many complexities of livelihoods, and the constraints and … These categories are (or are related to) livelihood objectives/purposes (following the ECHO-KRI approach or pattern)3: The assembling categories are: They can also influence livelihood strategies in a slightly less direct way, when people, anticipating the potential impact of trends and shocks, design their livelihood strategies in a way that helps them manage their exposure to sudden or gradual change and cope better with the potentially harmful effects of such change. One definition is presented in 2.2.2. Fishing contributes to an average of 70% of the livelihood amongthese households, with agriculture contributing an average of 16%. Such activities could include securing water, food, fodder, medicine, shelter, clothing. Study the diagram and see whether you can see possible relationships between the different variables listed in columns A to F. In discussing this we start at the centre, columns D and E, then move to the right (column F) before coming back to columns A to C. The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. An individual may take on several activities to meet his/her needs. membership of formal groups or organisations, informal social interactions in and outside the workplace, relationships of reciprocity, including gift exchange and mutual assistance. Livelihood strategies are the range and combination of activities and choices that people normally make or undertake in stable and peaceful times in order to achieve their livelihood goals (e.g. The ultimate objective of these investment strategies is to improve long-term livelihood security and the quality of life of more generally. The independent variable livelihood strategy is a categorical variable that represents the five livelihood strategies identified (i. e. ‘three food crops, coffee and khat’, ‘three food crops and khat’, ‘two food crops, coffee and khat’, ‘two food crops and khat’, … Trade contributes to an estimated 89% of their livelihood, and their average income is 6,700 PhP/month, just above average. People develop these social resources by investing time, effort and other resources in. The highest proportion of households in the two poorest wealth quintile were found among natural resources exploiters (56%), fishers (55%), day laborers (45%) and farmers (42%), Trader and households with an alternative livelihood had the highest proportion of, Heads of Household had on average the lowest. They account for 9% of the households and are present in a similar proportion across all regions. By keeping the capability to operate This analysis focuses on the combination of activities undertaken. All livelihood strategies depend upon access to assets of some kind or other, whether such access involves private ownership or other forms of access. The evolution of livelihood strategies was examined in Molas, a coastal village in North This analysis focuses on the combination of activities undertaken. Exposure to change can have a direct influence on livelihoods by weakening them, strengthening them, or forcing a new direction. Income level is obviously important to people, but to poor people income stability and risk avoidance may be as important, if not more so. In a majority of cases, remittances came from abroad (60%), and, to a lesser extent, from Manila (21%). This group relies on transport as a mean to support its livelihood (average 70% contribution). For example, better access to environmental capital may improve access to financial capital and physical capital; and greater income stability and lower risk may lead to higher aggregate income in the long term by reducing the probability of having to sell off productive assets in times of crisis, or by enhancing the returns to individual assets. This category of influences comes under a variety of different headings. This document presents a conceptual framework for integrating sustainable, ... adopts the definition proposed by … This is consistent with the finding that natural resources exploiters were more common among currently displaced households compared to the rest of the population. Livelihood strategies denote the range and combination of activities and choices (including on production and investment) made by households in order to sustain themselves and contribute to the economic capital of the household. Over 40% of the households that had returned home had benefited from assistance from their relatives and family (42%) and other sources (43%) while displaced. Households who depend almost exclusively on agriculture (87%) to support their livelihood. We shall look more at these ideas in Section 3. Can you think of some examples of such trade-offs? They represent, respectively, gradual and sudden change (have another look at the diagram above to see what these are). More broadly, social capital may refer to the ability to access and use to advantage socially constructed rules, organisations or relationships (these are also referred to as 'institutions'). Diversifying livelihood strategies at current time become a standard phenomenon within the study area. Poor people usually employ a mix of different 'strategies', especially when resources are to some extent pooled. In the framework presented here, the outcomes of livelihood strategies are divided between the effects on livelihood security and the effects on environmental sustainability. ALTERNATIVE LIVELIHOODS WORKING GLOSSARY off-farmagricultural market system employment livelihood alternative livelihoods entrepreneurship youth self-employment livelihood diversification employability job creation on-farm job creation non-farm resilience The USAID Office of Food for Peace (FFP) 2016 – 2025 Food Assistance and Food Security Strategy reaffirms a “commitment to … The Coping Strategy Index (CSI) measures food insecurity by considering the activities undertaken by households to manage food shortages. Disaggregated by settlement status, there were some important differences. Livelihood assets that encompass human, physical, social, natural, and financial assets are considered as dependent variables, while household livelihood strategies are independent variables. An individual's livelihood involves the capacity to acquire aforementioned necessities in order to satisfy the basic needs of themselves … Livelihood strategies denote the range and combination of activities and choices (including on production and investment) made by households in order to sustain themselves and contribute to the economic capital of the household. In 2.2.1 you will find one adapted from Ellis (2000). In the livelihoods framework, assets are conventionally divided into the following. A majority of households reported engaging in agriculture (56%), the most common activity. Use of the term capital implies that it can serve productive ends. These fluctuations are often dramatic and can profoundly affect livelihood security (Devereux et al 2011) People's livelihood strategies are designed, where possible, to reduce seasonal income fluctuations and the associated vulnerability. Skilled workers rely primarily on skilled employment (60%) and construction skilled employment (19%) to sustain their livelihood. 14 Story St, 02138 Cambridge, MAinfo@peacebuildingdata.org, Explore the interactive map with all indicators by region. The analyses resulted in a total of eight groups: (1) Farmer, (2) Day laborer, (3) Skilled workers, (4) Alternative livelihood, (5)Natural resources exploiter, (6) trader, (7) Fisher, and (8) Transporter. Finally, livelihood strategies frequently vary between individuals and households depending on differences in asset ownership, income levels, gender, age, caste, and social or political status. The following table presents a brief description of the characteristics of eachof the eight groups, such as the average monthly income and the proportion of households in the two poorest wealth quintiles. Note also that trends in a community or country may be made up increasing or decreasing shocks affecting individual people or livelihoods (for example increasing morbidity and mortality from HIV/AIDS may be a trend in a country but the onset of HIV/AIDS is a shock to those directly affected by it). The figure for the poorest asset quintile was 56 percent. A socially differentiated analytical approach to livelihood strategies is thus necessary (ibid., page 11). Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour marketsor l… For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. Livelihood Key Programme Indicators List 2 A total of twenty-two (22) Key Livelihood Programme Indicators have been identified. 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